Información de la droga para Nabumetone (Par Pharmaceutical Inc): GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

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  • Nabumetone cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

    The pharmacological activity of nabumetone in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

    Hepatic Effects

    Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including nabumetone. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with nabumetone. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), nabumetone should be discontinued.

    Hematological Effects

    Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including nabumetone. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including nabumetone, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

    NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving nabumetone who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Studies, Other).

    Preexisting Asthma

    Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, nabumetone should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

    Photosensitivity

    Based on ultraviolet (U.V.) light photosensitivity testing, Nabumetone may be associated with more reactions to sun exposure than might be expected based on skin tanning types.

    Nabumetone cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

    The pharmacological activity of nabumetone in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

    Hepatic Effects

    Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including nabumetone. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported. A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with nabumetone. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), nabumetone should be discontinued.

    Hematological Effects

    Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including nabumetone. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including nabumetone, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

    NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving nabumetone who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Studies, Other).

    Preexisting Asthma

    Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, nabumetone should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

    Photosensitivity

    Based on ultraviolet (U.V.) light photosensitivity testing, Nabumetone may be associated with more reactions to sun exposure than might be expected based on skin tanning types.

  • Information for Patients

  • Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

    • Nabumetone, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see , ).
    • Nabumetone, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see ).
    • Nabumetone, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS, and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.
    • Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.
    • Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.
    • Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g. difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see ).
    • In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, nabumetone should be avoided because it will cause pre-mature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
  • Laboratory Tests

  • Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, nabumetone should be discontinued.

  • Drug Interactions

  • ACE-inhibitors

    Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

    Aspirin

    When nabumetone in administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free nabumetone is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of nabumetone and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

    Diuretics

    Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that nabumetone can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see PRECAUTIONS, Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

    Lithium

    NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

    Methotrexate

    NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

    Warfarin

    The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

    In vitro studies have shown that, because of its affinity for protein, 6MNA may displace other protein-bound drugs from their binding site. Caution should be exercised when administering Nabumetone with warfarin since interactions have been seen with other NSAIDs.

    Concomitant administration of an aluminum-containing antacid had not significant effect on the bioavailability of 6MNA. When administered with food or milk, there is more rapid absorption; however, the total amount of 6MNA in the plasma is unchanged (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics).

  • Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis

  • In two-year studies conducted in mice and rats, nabumetone had no statistically significant tumorigenic effect. Nabumetone did not show mutagenic potential in the Ames test and mouse micronucleus test in vivo; however, nabumetone- and 6MNA-treated lymphocytes in culture showed chromosomal aberrations at 80 mcg/mL and higher concentrations (equal to the average human exposure to nabumetone at the maximum recommended dose).

  • Impairment of Fertility

  • Nabumetone did not impair fertility of male or female rats treated orally at doses of 320 mg/kg/day (1888 mg/m2) before mating.

  • Pregnancy

  • Teratogenic Effects

    Pregnancy Category C

    Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Nabumetone should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

    Nonteratogenic Effects

    Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

  • Labor and Delivery

  • In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of nabumetone on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

  • Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk, however 6MNA is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from nabumetone, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

  • Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

  • Geriatric Use

  • As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older). Of the 1,677 patients in US clinical studies who were treated with Nabumetone, 411 patients (24%) were 65 years or older; 22 patients (1%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in efficacy or safety were observed between these older patients and younger ones. Similar results were observed in a 1-year, non-US postmarketing surveillance study of 10,800 patients treated with Nabumetone, of whom 4,577 patients (42%) were 65 years or older.

  • Drug Information Provided by National Library of Medicine (NLM).
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